Do you have an external monitor? Do you want to change it’s backlight brightness, but hate having to reach to fiddle with it’s awkwardly placed and unintuitive button interface?

Me too! Thankfully, there’s a widely supported protocol called Display Data Channel (DDC) based on i2c that lets us solve this problem in a nice way. It allows for communication between a computer display and a graphics adapter - things like setting color contrast, getting model name/date information, and of course, setting backlight brightness.

Control displays using ddcutil

To manually query or change monitor settings from the command line, install the ddcutil program. Use it to detect which of your monitors are ddc-capable with:

ddcutil detect

or to set backlight brightness with:

ddcutil setvcp 10 $BRIGHTNESS -b $I2C_BUS

where 10 corresponds to the backlight brightness setting, and $I2C_BUS is the unique i2c ID given to your monitor (/sys/bus/i2c/devices/i2c-{n}) which should be reported to you by ddcutil detect.

This process is definitely not ideal though; scripting ddcutil is quite painful (trust me on that) and prone to errors (running multiple commands too quickly causes “communication failed” errors!) Plus, nobody wants to manually detect and set bus ID’s!

Furthermore, none of the other cool brightness control software or modules (like Waybar’s backlight module) will work with your monitors. Thankfully, there’s a better solution!


Linux has a standard “display brightness” interface (which is what’s used by all the brightness control software), in which each display is given a /sys/class/backlight/ entry for programs to interact with. To make this work with external ddc-capable monitors as well as regular laptop displays, one simply needs a program that bridges the gap between linux’s interface (/sys/class/backlight/) and ddc commands (/sys/bus/i2c/devices/i2c-{n}). Which is exactly what the ddcci-driver-linux kernel module does!

Upon proper installation of the ddcci-driver-linux kernel module, one will find /sys/class/backlight/ddcci{n} directories for each capable external monitor. Now any backlight program will work with them!

Nvidia sucks

Unfortunately, Nvidia graphics cards can cause some trouble. Since the graphics adapter (in the case of an Nvidia GPU, Nvidia’s drivers) is required to do the messaging with capable monitors, it is responsible for some of the ddc-capability detection. And of course, Nvidia’s implementation of that is known to be faulty/broken.

If ddcutil doesn’t detect your monitors, try these workarounds. If the ddcci-driver-linux kernel module doesn’t create the necessary /sys/class/backlight/ entries, try this workaround (I implemented it in my NixOS configs here).